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Friday, 28 July 2017

微容器构造器-Smith

Smith 是 Oracle 发布的一个 微容器构建工具 ,使用 Golang 开发。可以通过yum仓库和(可选)RPM文件来构建微容器。另外,它还可以“微化(micro-ize)”已有的Docker容器,在开发阶段,开发人员能够使用非常友好的Docker工具来构建容器,而在生产部署的时候,Smith能够将这个容器转换为微容器。Smith按照标准OCI格式来构建镜像,但是它也可以通过Docker仓库上传和下载镜像。

from http://studygolang.com/p/smith
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Smith: A microcontainer builder 

What is smith?

smith is a simple command line utility for building microcontainers from rpm packages or oci images.

Principles of microcontainers

  1. A microcontainer only contains the process to be run and its direct dependencies.
  2. The microcontainer has files with no user ownership or special permissions beyond the executable bit.
  3. The root filesystem of the container should be able to run read-only. All writes from the container should be into a directory called /write. Any unique config that an individual container instance will need should be placed into a directory called /read. Ephemeral files such as pid files can be written to /run.

Building smith

Building can be done via the Makefile:
make
Build dependencies:
golang-bin
Go dependencies are vendored in the vendor directory.

Runtime dependencies

To build from rpms, smith requires:
mock
Although mock is used for rpm packaging, it can be installed on debian/ubuntu if you are willing to be a little tricky. Specifically you need at least mock 1.2. Version 1.1.X will not work because the -r flag does not support abspath to the mock config file. Instructions for debian/ubuntu:
sudo apt-get install createrepo yum
# At the time of this writing the below package is suitable and available
# for download. Your milage may vary and we suggest finding an official
# debian mock package that is 1.2 or 1.3.
wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/m/mock/mock_1.3.2-1_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i mock_1.3.2-1_all.deb
usermod -a -G mock <your_username>
# rpm on debian has a patch to macros that messes up mock so undo it. Note
# that updating your os will sometimes reset this file and you will have
# to run this command again.
sudo sed -i 's;%_dbpath\t.*;%_dbpath\t\t%{_var}/lib/rpm;g' /usr/lib/rpm/macros
# on debian/ubuntu for some reason yum tries to install packages for
# multiple archs, so it is necessary to update the yum.conf section in
# default.cfg to prevent that. If you switch your default.cfg you may
# have to do this again.
sudo sed -i '/\[main\]/a multilib_policy=best' /etc/mock/default.cfg

Installing smith

Installing can be done via the Makefile:
sudo make install

Using smith

To use smith, simply create a smith.yaml defining your container and run smith. If you want to overlay additional files or symlinks, simply place them into a directory called rootfs beside smith.yaml.
If you are building the same container multiple times without editing the package line, the -f parameter will rebuild the container without reinstalling the package.

Build

To build a container with smith, create a smith.yaml file and invoke smith with no parameters:
mkdir cat
cd cat

cat >smith.yaml <<EOF
package: coreutils
paths:
- /usr/bin/cat
cmd:
- /usr/bin/cat
- /read/data
EOF

mkdir -p rootfs/read
echo "Hello World!" >rootfs/read/data

smith
Your image will be saved as image.tar.gz. You can change the name with a parameter:
smith -i cat.tar.gz
Smith has a few other options which can be viewed using "--help"
smith --help

Build Types

Smith can build from local rpm files or repositories. You can change the yum config by modifying your /etc/mock/default.cfg.
Smith can also build directly from oci files downloaded via the download command, or an oci directly from a docker repository. Simply specify either in your smith.yaml as package, for example:
package: https://registry-1.docker.io/library/fedora
paths:
- /usr/bin/cat
cmd:
- /usr/bin/cat
- /read/data

Advanced Usage

For more detailed instructions on building containers, check out How To Build a Tiny Httpd Container

Upload

You can upload your image to a docker repository:
smith upload -r https://username:password@registry-1.docker.io/myrepo/cat -i cat.tar.gz
Images will be uploaded to the tag latest. You can specify an alternative tag name to use appending it after a colon:
smith upload -r https://registry-1.docker.io/myrepo/cat:newtag
It automatically uploads to registry-1.docker.io using docker media types. Otherwise it tries to upload using oci media types. If you want to upload to a private docker v2 registry that doesn't support oci media types, you can use the -d switch:
smith upload -d -r https://myregistry.com/myrepo/cat -i cat.tar.gz
You can specify a tag name to upload to by appending it to the name

Download

smith can also download existing images from docker repositories:
smith download -r https://registry-1.docker.io/library/hello-world -i hello-world.tar.gz
It will convert these to tar.gz oci layouts. The latest tag will be downloaded. To download an alternative tag, append it after a colon:
smith download -r https://registry-1.docker.io/library/hello-world:othertag
 
from https://github.com/oracle/smith#readme 
 

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